Hi massfisher, probably trout in Oz are a bit different to trout in the US due to conditions but som things are pretty much the same.
I'll put what I have learned in point form to make it easier and remember these are my opinions only so i hope I don't upset anyone.
1.Fish like structure, in lakes they hang around submerged trees and logs, or weed beds where they can forage for food. If fishing weed beds, cast along the edges where things such as worms beetles etc are accessable to the fish. Rivers are slightly different and the fish may hang out under trees waiting for something to drop off them, along the edges of eddys or around rocks facing upstream waiting for food to float down to them.
2.Time of day can be important as is the weather, early and late in the day fish may be in shallower water, rising or feeding as the water temperature cools down, later in the day the fish may move into cooler deeper water.
3.Line choice is important, trout have extremely good eyesight most times in shallow water they see you before you see them and I reckon they are pretty good at seeing a line attached to bait. You can use anything between 2lb to 10lb line usually in a monofilament, and if bait fishing use a small running sinker with a flurocarbon leader about 2 foot long. (this will depend on where you are fishing lakes and rivers require different methods sometimes. The leader can be from 2lb to about 6lb depends on the fish size. If you can afford it you can use flurocarbon as the whole line, Monofilament line does have a reflective index that the fish can see, whereas flurocarbon line becomes invisible in water due to its reflective qualities. Line colour is important also as if fishing in dirty water, brown or a coloured line may be better.
4.Bait: If using Powerbait Trout dough the leader length helps to float the bait up off the bottom. A size 10 ganged hook or a 12 treble with the dough (either fluro orange or fluro red is ok) or a size larger if you wish, using baits such as local bait fish or worms (night crawlers I think you call them). trout like lve baits. Powerbait can be attached using berkley dough molders which compress the dough into a ball around the hook without leaving any "human" smell on the bait. Powerbait dough , eggs and nuggets are very effective it seems with trout that are stocked as juveniles to a water source.
5.Spinners are a matter of choice and a little homework may be required to find the right ones. Dependant on what the local bait fish look like get something similar, sometimes they like a spinner or lure with a few red spots similar to small brown trout. i read somewhere that rainbow trout like silver spinners, brown trout gold and salmon copper. The choice is endless and you may need to ask a local what colours they catch them on.
6.Give your line a bit of slack as trout like to run, back the drag off initially, weight on the line spooks them, keep your weights light if possible, but not to the point where you cant cast for distance, if required.
Hope this helps, these are my experiences and I am no expert, you will find dependant on where you fish that be it, a Lake or a River/stream, the method you employ will vary. I suppose the best thing is if you see other guys around you catching trout ask them what set up they are using. I have always found other fishermen pretty chatty and only too happy to share baits, tips etc.
If you want to use flys then that is a whole new story.